马海生:chess是什么意思

  chesschess: [13] The game of chess was named after its key move, in which the king is put in check. The plural of Old French eschec (from which we get check) was esches, which in Middle English became chess. (A roughly contemporary English term for the game was chequer, but this died out in the 15th century.) Old French eschec came ultimately from Persian shāh ‘king’, reflecting the game’s eastern origins. However, the terms for the game in Persian (chatrang) and Sanskrit (chaturanga) signify ‘four members of an army’ – namely, elephants, horses, chariots, and foot-soldiers.

  chess (n.)13c., from Old French "chessmen," plural of "game of chess, chessboard; checkmate" (see check (n.1)), from the key move of the game. Modern French still distinguishes "check, blow, rebuff, defeat," from plural "chess."

  The original word for "chess" is Sanskrit "four members of an army" -- elephants, horses, chariots, foot soldiers. This is preserved in Spanish , from Arabic , from Persian , from the Sanskrit word.The chess pieces are the block alphabet which shapes thoughts; and these thoughts, although making a visual design on the chessboard, express their beauty abstractly, like a poem. [Marcel Duchamp, address to New York State Chess Association, Aug. 30, 1952]

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